Motors generate mechanical energy from electric energy. Motors operate between electric energy and magnetic fields made from wound wires. This article explains the maintenance practices carried out on motors to increase their efficiency and life span.
The discovery of motors has improved the rate of doing work today compared to the traditional time. This has been made possible by the invention of electricity, which is the source of energy to run the motors. Motors can be used for pipeline compressions, ship propulsion, industries, homesteads among others. For best results from these motors, the following maintenance practices must be carried out.
Besides being a routine practice should also be carried out when the motor is running hot or is noisy due to friction. Lubricate all the moving parts of the motor including the bearings. This is to prevent wear and tear as a result of friction. Do not use the lubricant excessively to avoid dirt on the bearings.
Motors with a wick lubrication system should be oiled at least annually. Heavy loading may reduce lubrication to an interval of 3 months. Apply 30 drops of lubricant to a frame diameter of 3 inches and 100 drops for a diameter of 9 inches. Fill the cavity with oil to the recommended level by the manufacturer as long as the oil is clean and light. This applies to motors with large oil reservoirs.
Almost all modern balls and bearings are equipped with a positive lubricating system. The frequency of greasing depends on the severity and the size of the motor. During greasing, remove both the drainage and the inlet pipes. Pump greases into the housing using low pressure until grease comes out through the drainage hole. If the high temperature of the bearing persists, wash the housing and the bearing using a good solvent.
Commutator and brush inspection
A routine maintenance check of the motors will prevent abrupt malfunctioning and inconveniences. Inspect if there are wears and tears, and replace immediately. This will prevent the accumulation of faults. The commutator should be free from scratches, dents, and grooves. The presence of these signs calls for a replacement to maintain the integrity of the electric motors. The brush should be free from rough spots which is a sign of sparking. Furthermore, inspect the stators, belt, motor mount, and rotor. Replace the worn-out parts.
Motor winding test
For DC motors, perform an Insulation Ground test to the motor to determine the insulation level. A low reading indicates reduced insulation which may result from moisture contamination, deterioration from age, or overheating. A motor reading one megger is little. The insulation curve will determine if the motor can be left in service up to the next inspection.
Motor windings sometimes have anomalies. Signs of marks, cracks, and burning odor must be followed with a mandatory motor winding test. You should disassemble the motor and look for the abnormalities. Overheating of the motor causes most of the damages, Rewind the motor and test the insulation to know the level of resistance of the wire.
Infrared thermographic inspection
This involves capturing images without interfering with the operation of the motor using infrared cameras. These pictures provide a temperature pattern throughout the motor. All mechanical systems often provide a certain amount of heat energy. Therefore, they should have a normal temperature pattern. Any problem such as insulation failure or insufficient airflow is detected by the change in temperature patterns.
Motors must undergo routine checkups to function normally, or otherwise, they will break down. All maintenance practices must be carried out in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. For more, check https://electricmotors.co.ke